- Incineration Technology: This technology comprises a high-temperature thermal process and allows combustion of the waste in controlled conditions to convert it into inert gases and materials. Incinerators are either electrically powered or oil fired or can be a combination of both. Incinerators utilized for hospital waste management are of three main types, namely controlled air, multiple hearth, and rotary kiln. All of these incinerators comprise both primary as well as secondary combustion chambers for ensuring an optimal combustion.
- Non-Incineration Technology: This treatment incorporates four key processes, namely chemical, thermal, biological, and irradiative. Non-incineration technologies majorly employee chemical as well as thermal processes. The key aim of this treatment technology is the decontamination of waste by destroying of the pathogens.
- Microwave Irradiation: This technology is based upon the principle of generating high frequency waves inside of a microwave. The waves cause the vibration of the particles present within the waste material and thus generate heat. This heat kills all the pathogens present within the waste material.
- Plasma Pyrolysis: This technology is a state-of-the-art technology employed for the safe disposal of medical waste. This technology is extremely eco-friendly and converts organic waste into by-products, which are then commercially used. The extreme heat generated by plasma results in the disposal of all kinds of wastes including biomedical waste, municipal solid waste, and hazardous waste in a reliable and safe manner.
- Autoclaving: This technology works on the principle of a standard pressure cooker and involves the utilization of heat at extremely high temperatures. The steam generated at high temperatures kills all microorganisms in the medical waste. Autoclaving is of three main types, namely pre-vacuum, retort, and gravity.